Data communication means the exchange of data between two objects or devices. In technological terms the objects/devices could be computers, mobile phones, smart machines or other electronic gadgets. The data is transferred via some physical wired medium or wireless medium.
Data Communication Components
Every data communication system have five basic components
The information we send is known as message. The information or data could be in the form of text, picture, audio and video
The data is generated and sent by a device called sender. The device may be computer, remote controller, mobile phone etc.
The data is received by another device known as receiver.
4. Transmission Channel:
The data is transmitted by using a physical communicating path called transmission channel. There are many wired and wireless transmission mediums available today.
Wired mediums: optical fiber, twisted pair cable, LAN cable, coaxial cable
Wireless mediums: radio waves, free space optics (FSO), millimeter wave (mmWave)
Two devices cannot exchange data between them without protocols. Protocol is a set of rules and regulations by which data communication is done. Imagine if you are not familiar with the rules of English grammar, you would not be able to read and understand this post.
Data Communication Characteristics
Today in this technological world where we are already using 4G (4th Generation) data communication systems and moving towards 5G (Fifth Generation) systems. Every communication channel must possess the following four characteristics otherwise it would not be considered a good communication system.
The data communication system must be able to deliver data to correct destination. For example you sent message to a person A then only person A should have been receive the message not person B.
The system must be able to deliver correct data. The altered or loss of data would be unusable.
This is as crucial as the above two characteristics. The data must be delivered in correct format and timely. If a person is watching a video on YouTube or doing live video chatting, the delay in the audio or video is intolerable. Secondly the video and audio data must be delivered with proper sequence. The incorrect sequence will jeopardize the data communication.
The data is delivered in the form of packets. The packets are sent periodically. The variation in the periodicity of a signal or a data packet is called jitter. In pure telecommunication terms jitter is the variation in the “Latency”.