Today billions of people know about the terms “world wide web ( www)” and “internet”. People are using many applications and devices which cannot work without internet. Transmission control protocol (TCP) provides data transport services to these applications and devices.In fact TCP is the backbone of today’s internet. The abbreviation TCP is not used alone but another term internet protocol (IP) also comes with it. This makes TCP/IP is a full suite of protocols and has been accepted worldwide.
In this blog you will learn what is TCP and how it works.
What is the difference between TCP and IP?
Basically TCP and IP both are protocols. Together they make a full suite of protocols. But TCP makes sure the data has been delivered reliably and IP provides logical addresses to the different devices in the network. So data can reach to correct destination.
What is the purpose of TCP/IP?
The TCP was designed with clear purpose to connect multiple networks situated at various geographical locations. And today we can see there are thousands of networks connected with each other to make a world of internetworks or internet.
Why is TCP important?
The TCP/IP is important because it is the backbone of internet. Today internet is using these protocols. Every network device must support these otherwise it would not be able to communicate with other networking devices in the world.
TCP/IP Protocol Layers
Just like OSI model, TCP/IP protocol suite has layers as shown in the following figure
Fig: TCP/IP Protocol Layers
1. Application Layer
The application layer in TCP/IP gathers the responsibilities of application, presentation and session layers of OSI model. It provides the following functions :
- Provides interface to access network services
- Encryption, compression and translation of data
- A dialogue session between nodes i.e between to or more servers, between servers and clients
2. Transport Layer
It provides reliable data transfer mechanism from one end to other end. Multiple applications can be supported at the same time. TCP is the protocol used in this layer. The main functions are :
- Connection-oriented data delivery
- Data flow control
- Duplicate data suppression
3. IP Layer
This is one of the most important layer. Internetwork protocols or internet protocols is connectionless protocol which provides routing function to deliver data packets with an IP address allotted. These packets are called datagrams. IP layer doesn’t provide any error control or flow control. These are done in higher layers.
4. Network Access Layer
This layer is the actual access to the hardware interface. TCP/IP doesn’t provide any specific protocol for this layer. This is also known as data link layer. A network can be local area network (LAN) or wide area (network)