In data communication protocols are the rules and regulation which are agreed by the sender and receiver to exchange data between them.
Two devices can’t share data with each other until they know what type of data they are exchanging. For example you are reading this blog easily because you know the rules and regulations of English language. Otherwise you wouldn’t be able to read. Same is the case with networking devices. The receiver must need to understand the type of data coming and how to handle it. On the other hand the sender must send the data on the same regulations and rules which receiver understands.
Key Components of Network Protocols
The following three are considered as key components of a data communication network protocol.
1. Bits Structure
Every data communication system has a defined structure or format of sending data. This defined format is sometimes referred to as “syntax” of the data. This structure varies from system to system. The Fig-1 shows a frame structure of GSM network. Which shows the arrangement of bits within the frame.
Fig-1: Bits Structure of GSM
2. Bits Section
You can see in Fig-1, each section of the bits represents a particular meaning of the bits. Receiver must understand the meaning of each and every section of the bits. Moreover these sections must come in a sequence otherwise receiver wouldn’t be able to understand fully.
For example if you try to put SIM card of a 4G network into your 2G mobile supported mobile phone. You will not be able to receive 4G services because your 2G mobile phone is not able to understand the frame structure and bits section of 4G network. Its mean you must have a 4G supported mobile phone.
3. Data Speed
Both sender and receiver must be able to handle the data with same capacity. If the sender can send data at 100 Mbps but receiver can only receive 10 Mbps then data can be lost.
Standards are basically a guideline to manufacturers so they can build similar networking devices of a particular technology. So the users can communicate irrespective of their location around the globe.
In the modern world where technology is growing at a rapid speed. Every day we see many new types of devices are manufactured. People are using them globally. Similarly the networking devices connect the people around the world. People are using various networking devices made by hundreds of vendors from different countries..
In addition to protocols these devices must be built on a defined standard rather than building on so many standards. For example you buy a networking device and install at home but this device is built on different standard as compared to my networking device. Communication will be difficult or no communication takes place. But if we buy devices of two different vendors making the devices on same standards set by an international organization. We can communicate very easily.
Types of Networking Standards
1. De Facto
These standards are adopted globally due to widespread use of a new invented device or technology.
For example android OS is built by Google Inc. but many manufacturers are making android devices. All these manufactures design their devices according to standards set by Google. Same is the case with Windows supported devices.
2. De Jure
These standards are defined by a recognized global organization or committee. For example WiFi standards are set by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)